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Author Topic: Biochemistry  (Read 107674 times)
xelnanga
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« on: September 10, 2006, 04:15:39 PM »

Before we start, I like to add some things.

Bold - Important Vocab.
Italic - Additions on the Vocab. Important notes and etc.

Here we go!

Lesson 1


Matter - Anything that has mass and volume
If you are not matter, you are energy. Mater is composed of atoms.

Atoms are made of 3 parts.

e- (electrons) - determines chemical reactions
p+ (protons) - determines nuclear reaction
n0 (neutrons) - also determines nuclear reactions


Atomic # = number of protons, also usually electrons
Atmoic Mass = # of protons + neutrons

AMU (Atmoic Mass unit)

Element - pure substance. Coposed of only 1 kind of atom. 92 natural earth elements.

Atoms of the same type (same atomic #) but a different mass (# of neutrons) are called Isotopes. They are unstable (radioactive.)

Most matter in the world is in the form of a compound.

Compound - A chemical combination of two or more elements (ie. H20)

Now, for today, here is a question that all you smart people can answer.

Why are elements always forming compounds?

~End of Class~
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Pansada
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Corintur


« Reply #1 on: September 10, 2006, 04:36:09 PM »

They don't like their outer electron levels being not full, so they share.
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xelnanga
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« Reply #2 on: September 10, 2006, 05:39:14 PM »

They don't like their outer electron levels being not full, so they share.
Partially correct. I will wait for more answers until someone posts a very good, coherent and simple answer.
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Jasque
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« Reply #3 on: September 10, 2006, 06:24:33 PM »

I thought Corintur's answer was pretty good.  Tongue
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xelnanga
Neodamode
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« Reply #4 on: September 10, 2006, 06:34:33 PM »

Well, the correct answer is:

Elements form compounds in order to fill their valence shell to become stable.

What I had problem with was that there could have been more proper ways to reword his answer, but whatever.

2nd lesson will come tommorow. Smiley
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« Reply #5 on: September 10, 2006, 07:12:21 PM »

All is well, thank you very much. However, I have 4 other question regarding the Characteristics of Life, so if you could answer them, thank you.
1) Name six characters that all living things share.
2) What are two levels of organization found in living things?
3) How does the growth of a nonliving thing differ from the growth of a living thing?
4) Why is reproduction an important characteristic of life?

btw, xelnanga...I'd like to learn starting with the basics,
going to Chemistry (only necessary for Bio),
Biochemistry, then Energetics(1. Harvesting light energy as chemical energy, 2. Converting chemical energy to useful energy).
After that, Cells (Structure, Fuction, Tissues, Organs, Organisms),
Genetics (Mendelian, Structure of Genes and Chromosomes, Inheritance, Molecular Genetics, Genetic Engeneering),
Evolution, Classification of Organisms, Microorganisms.

Tongue Thanks
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xelnanga
Neodamode
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« Reply #6 on: September 11, 2006, 02:48:36 PM »

Lesson 2

Inert - when the electron shells are filled, they become stable.

3 or less valance electrons -> Loses electrons -> becomes + charge
5 or more valance electrons -> Gains electrons -> becomes - charge
4 valanace valance electrons -> Gain or lose


2 different types of bonds.
1.covalent = electrons are shared
2. ionic - electrons transferred from one element to he other, creating charged particles (ions)

Isomers - Substances with the same chemical formula but a different shape and function.

Solution - A homogeneous (same throughtout) fluid substance.
Greater Part - Solvent
Lesser Part - Solute


Important Ionic Solutions

1. Liberates excess H+ ions in solution: Acid
2. Liberates excess OH- (hydroxide) ions in solution: Base
3. Equal #'s of H+ and OH- ions = neutral

To measure acid and base strength, we use pH scale.

1-------------------7----------------------14
<------------------   ---------------------->
Acid strength             Base strength
increases                             increases

Questions

1. What is the relation of structure and function?

2. What is the universal solvent?

3. How do you carry out a Conductivity test?

4. What kind of scale is a pH scale?

~End of Class~

All is well, thank you very much. However, I have 4 other question regarding the Characteristics of Life, so if you could answer them, thank you.
1) Name six characters that all living things share.
2) What are two levels of organization found in living things?
3) How does the growth of a nonliving thing differ from the growth of a living thing?
4) Why is reproduction an important characteristic of life?

btw, xelnanga...I'd like to learn starting with the basics,
going to Chemistry (only necessary for Bio),
Biochemistry, then Energetics(1. Harvesting light energy as chemical energy, 2. Converting chemical energy to useful energy).
After that, Cells (Structure, Fuction, Tissues, Organs, Organisms),
Genetics (Mendelian, Structure of Genes and Chromosomes, Inheritance, Molecular Genetics, Genetic Engeneering),
Evolution, Classification of Organisms, Microorganisms.

Tongue Thanks

Wow. That's quite a list. xD

I will make a thread for each one unit after I am through for each course. I will probably start teaching multiple classes if there are willing students.

For all those who are reading this, understand that in no way should my work get in your way of school work. Please feel free to drop by and say that you are busy if you are. I will understand. Smiley

For your questions:
1) Carbon, Acid, Protein, Fats/lipids, Nitrogen,  poly/mono sacchrides (The following six are the most BASIC things in 99.99999999% of all living things. There are ALWAYS exeptions in biology)
2) Please reword your question. Are you talking about ecology? Then it would be predators and prey.
3) If it's not alive, how is it growing? If you know the answer, I suggest you apply for a Nobel prize.  Grin
4) This is too complicated to write in a short answer. It is very long. There are thousands, if not millions of books pertaining to this topic. However, the basic concept is that living things would usually like to create a newer generation. I will actually get to this question in other classes. Hold on to this question and ask me in the evolution class.
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« Reply #7 on: September 11, 2006, 03:17:29 PM »

For your questions xelnanga,
I dont know the answers to 1 and 3 but I'm sure the answer to number two is water and 4 is the acidity scale.

As for mine, I had to do this reading that I just found out about for the first two questions but for the 3rd one, I wrote, non living things still contain atoms, and they bring together more of their substance. For ex/ chemicals -- non-living, but they grow in quantity every year if we dont use it. (I have no idea if this is write but I'm going to take my chances.)

Hmm, what else can you teach xelnanga? Algebra? Math Analysis?
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xelnanga
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« Reply #8 on: September 11, 2006, 06:55:30 PM »

For your questions xelnanga,
I dont know the answers to 1 and 3 but I'm sure the answer to number two is water and 4 is the acidity scale.

As for mine, I had to do this reading that I just found out about for the first two questions but for the 3rd one, I wrote, non living things still contain atoms, and they bring together more of their substance. For ex/ chemicals -- non-living, but they grow in quantity every year if we dont use it. (I have no idea if this is write but I'm going to take my chances.)

Hmm, what else can you teach xelnanga? Algebra? Math Analysis?

I can juggle through a lot of things.
I can teach the following courses very easily:

European History
American History
Law (Criminal, Legal, Business, etc.)
Mathematics A (I am going by what it is in United States. Basically this is Algebra I)
Mathematics B (Again, this is Algebra II)
Pre-Calculus
AMC, AIME
Literature (Plato, etc.)
Roman History
Greek History
Han Dynasty
Biology (as you may have guessed. :p)
Medieval History
Crusades History
Civil War History

Basically I am a history buff, mainly.

and some few other things I can't think of.

As for Question #2, you are correct. However you are wrong in #4. It's ok. Nonetheless, try again!

Also, think about this. If we leave carbon 12 (radioactive substance) by itself, then would it grow or decay?
« Last Edit: September 11, 2006, 06:57:13 PM by xelnanga » Logged

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« Reply #9 on: September 12, 2006, 02:21:24 PM »

I have heard of the pHscale, but I dont specifically know...
Thats a huge list, well, in that case, do you know the slope intersect form, y =mx +b? Explain that if you have time, also, how would you graph that equation. say y = 4, mx = 2x and b = 6...thanks!
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xelnanga
Neodamode
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« Reply #10 on: September 12, 2006, 03:27:20 PM »

Lesson 3

Indicators - Substances that change color to indicate something
ie. Litmus Paper, pH paper, bromothymal blue, phenothalien

*All living things are extremely sensitive to changes of pH

Denature - Change shapes, which will make it not work
ie. Acid Rain - Trees around the borders of lakes all die and there is no life in the lake. -> Hence the lake color is a pretty blue. Which means no living things there.

Matter Changes - Describe matter in terms of its proeperties
Physical - Generally described as appearance
Chemical - How a substance reacts with other substances (behavior)

Chemical Equations - Shorthand method of writing chemical reactions.

2 Fe + 02 --> 2 FeO

Diatomic - Elements which are found in 2 pair. Found by Dr. Armond Brinclhof.

~End of Class~

Here are some questions!

1. What color would the Litmus paper turn to if indicating something?

2. Where would you see when matter is turned into energy?

3. Where would you see when energy is turned to matter?

4. Who is Dr. Brinclhof?

These are the answers to the questions previous class.

1. What is the relation of structure and function?
When there is a certain structure, the function is different. Ie. Leaves have different structures. Evergreen trees have small, sharp, needle-like leaves, while the trees around the North-eastern coasts all blossom their leaves into huge, round leaves. Why? Because, Evergreen trees photosynthesize all year, and does not risk losing too much if they lose one leaf. However, they can't photosynthesize as efficiently. The round leaves are huge, because they only photosynthesize during the summer. Hence, they must store up a lot of food for winter as well, when they don't photosynthesize.

2. What is the universal solvent?
Water is correct.

3. How do you carry out a Conductivity test?
First, there would be two beakers. One would be NaCl solution (Beaker A) and the other Sugar solution (Beaker B).
In Beaker A, you wold put two wires in the beaker and wwiat until the ions dissociate. Then, at the end of the wires not on the beaker side, the light would blink, since NaCl has charges. However, the sugar solution has no charges and the light does not go on.


4. What kind of scale is a pH scale?
Correct answer is logarithmic. It increases by 10, 10^2, 10^3, and so on.

I have heard of the pHscale, but I dont specifically know...
Thats a huge list, well, in that case, do you know the slope intersect form, y =mx +b? Explain that if you have time, also, how would you graph that equation. say y = 4, mx = 2x and b = 6...thanks!

Yes. I actually do know, y=mx + b is meant to be mainly for graphing.

To graph the equation y=4, you can just simply enter into your loyal, Ti-83+.

However, mx= 2x would equal m=2. Since we are talking about linear lines, the m is slope.

B is the y-intercept. That means where ever the line crosses the y axis, then the coordinate for the y in the (x,y) form wold be the value of "b."

Hence, with your items, the equation would be: y = 2x +6

Basically a slope of 2 would be 2/1. Therefore you chart the y-intercept (0, 6) and then move up 2, then right 1. Then after a while, go down two and left 1. Then draw the line and you are done. Smiley
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Pansada
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« Reply #11 on: September 12, 2006, 04:03:15 PM »

I'm just here to answer #2, because Winni already had the emoticon.

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xelnanga
Neodamode
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« Reply #12 on: September 12, 2006, 04:44:27 PM »

I'm just here to answer #2, because Winni already had the emoticon.


Correct! I was looking for a more simple answer though, : fire.
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Fox
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« Reply #13 on: September 13, 2006, 02:33:32 PM »

No fair, the questions are too hard to answer  Cry
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xelnanga
Neodamode
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« Reply #14 on: September 13, 2006, 03:11:23 PM »

No fair, the questions are too hard to answer  Cry
No questions are hard. You just need to think about the materials I have provided for you. Smiley
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Fox
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« Reply #15 on: September 14, 2006, 03:08:11 PM »

I didnt have time to sit and think last night, I was cramming in homework and studying for a midterm, to move up in levels. So, I couldnt use my brain right then Smiley
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xelnanga
Neodamode
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« Reply #16 on: September 14, 2006, 03:40:01 PM »

Lesson 4

Organic - Made by or of living (once living) things. Most contain carbon and hydrogen.

Polymer - Forming long chained molecules to lose or gain electrons.

4 Tyes of Organic Compounds
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Fats/Lipids
4. Nucleic Acids

*They all contain Carbon and Hydrogen.*

Carbohydrates (Contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen in the ratio of 2 H to 1 O. (H20)
Includes, but not limited to sugars, starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen, etc.

Sugars
1. Monosacchride - Glucose
2. Disaccharide
3. Polysacchride - Cellulose, Chitin, glycogen

Why do you need them?
-Shorter term energy use (maximum - weeks)

Carbohydrates must be ingested.

Now, here are some questions. These are different scenarios and Please post what type of sugar is needed. (Dissacharide, Polysacchride, etc.)

1) Half-Time at a basketball game

2) 20 mile bike ride in a few hours

3) Next month, you will be going to the Men's fitness competition. (Answer is not steroids!  Wink)

The answers to previous questions from last class:


1. What color would the Litmus paper turn to if indicating something?
A. Blue/Red
2. Where would you see when matter is turned into energy?
A. Explosions, bombs, usually involving of fire
3. Where would you see when energy is turned to matter?
A. Photosynthesis
4. Who is Dr. Brinclhof?
A. He's not a real person!

Br I N Cl H O F

The 7 above elements are the major diatomic elements!
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« Reply #17 on: September 14, 2006, 04:04:34 PM »

I think one would be Polysacchride, two would be Monosacchride, and three would be Disaccharide
Cheesy
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« Reply #18 on: September 14, 2006, 04:10:38 PM »

I think one would be Polysacchride, two would be Monosacchride, and three would be Disaccharide
Cheesy
Shocked I am sorry. All of them are wrong.  Lips Sealed
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« Reply #19 on: September 15, 2006, 02:12:36 PM »

lmao! how about: one = Monosacchride, two = Monosacchride, three = Disaccharide
Cheesy
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